Spiritual Retreats Change Feel-Good Chemical Systems in the Brain
Changes may prime the brain for spiritual experiences
More Americans than ever are turning to spiritual, meditative and religious retreats as a way to reset their daily life and enhance well-being. Now, researchers at The Marcus Institute of Integrative Health at Thomas Jefferson University show there are changes in the dopamine and serotonin systems in the brains of retreat participants. The team published their results in Religion, Brain & Behavior.
"Since serotonin and dopamine are part of the reward and emotional systems of the brain, it helps us understand why these practices result in powerful, positive emotional experiences," said Andrew Newberg, M.D., Director of Research in the Marcus Institute of Integrative Health. "Our study showed significant changes in dopamine and serotonin transporters after the seven-day retreat, which could help prime participants for the spiritual experiences that they reported."
The post-retreat scans revealed decreases in dopamine transporter (5-8 percent) and serotonin transporter (6.5 percent) binding, which could make more of the neurotransmitters available to the brain. This is associated with positive emotions and spiritual feelings. In particular, dopamine is responsible for mediating cognition, emotion and movement, while serotonin is involved in emotional regulation and mood.
The study, funded by the Fetzer Institute, included 14 Christian participants ranging in age from 24 to 76. They attended an Ignatian retreat based on the spiritual exercises developed by St. Ignatius Loyola who founded the Jesuits.
Following a morning mass, participants spent most of the day in silent contemplation, prayer and reflection and attended a daily meeting with a spiritual director for guidance and insights. After returning, study subjects also completed a number of surveys which showed marked improvements in their perceived physical health, tension and fatigue. They also reported increased feelings of self-transcendence which correlated to the change in dopamine binding.
"In some ways, our study raises more questions than it answers," said Dr. Newberg. "Our team is curious about which aspects of the retreat caused the changes in the neurotransmitter systems and if different retreats would produce different results. Hopefully, future studies can answer these questions."
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DR. ANDREW NEWBERG is a neuroscientist who studies the relationship between brain function and various mental states. He is a pioneer in the neurological study of religious and spiritual experiences, a field known as “neurotheology.” His research includes taking brain scans of people in prayer, meditation, rituals, and trance states, in an attempt to better understand the nature of religious and spiritual practices and attitudes.
MARK WALDMAN is one of the world’s leading experts on communication, spirituality, and the brain. He serves on the faculty of Loyola Marymount University’s College of Business. Mark has authored or co-authored 12 books, including the national bestseller, How God Changes Your Brain, an Oprah pick for 2012. His research has been featured in Time, the Washington Post, New York Times, Forbes, Entrepreneur, Investor’s Business Weekly, and Oprah Magazine.
HOW GOD CHANGES YOUR BRAIN:
Breakthrough Findings from a Leading Neuroscientist
by Andrew Newberg, MD., and Mark Robert Waldman
God is great — for your mental, physical and spiritual health. Based on new evidence culled from brain-scan studies, a wide-reaching survey of people’s religious and spiritual experiences, and the authors’ analyses of adult drawings of God, neuroscientist Andrew Newberg and therapist Mark Robert Waldman offer breakthrough discoveries.